Diabetes mellitus ranks third in the world by mortality in developed countries.
Today, there are about 150 million people worldwide suffering from the disease, and the World Health Organization predicts that by 2025 this figure could rise to 300 million.
As long as diabetes mellitus is incurable, but modern medical science is able to improve the quality of life of patients, make them able to live and work normally.
Dr. Denis Slinkin tells us about the problems in this field of medicine and health care.Diabetes mellitus occurs when the body lacks the most important hormone – insulin, without which cells do not absorb glucose from carbohydrate food. There is another variant of diabetes mellitus: the amount of insulin is enough, but due to a number of reasons the body’s cells lose sensitivity to it, and it also affects the utilization of glucose, primarily in muscle and adipose tissue.
As a result, the concentration of glucose in the blood increases, but the glucose does not enter the tissue at all. Glucose is the body’s main “fuel”, without it cells do not produce the main molecule that accumulates living energy – adenosine triphosphate phate (ATP). Brain cells are particularly sensitive to glucose deficiency and die within 5 minutes without it, says Dr. Denis Slinkin.
The hormone of insulin, or rather its predecessor – proinsulin, produces cells of the pancreas, which are called Langerhans islands. But it’s not all cells that synthesize it, but only part of them, the so-called beta cells.
Proinsulin, a short-chain protein molecule, turns into insulin as it passes through the cell membrane. The more insulin is needed, the more beta cells are involved.
It should be emphasized that in the human body there is a background, so-called “basal”, insulin production and peak, associated with eating. Dr. Denis Slinkin states that there are currently two main types of diabetes: insulin dependent diabetes and insulin-independent diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by absolute insulin insufficiency – the pancreas does not produce the hormone at all. In this case, insulin injections are required in order to save the patient’s life.