Hearing the phrase “You have kidney failure” is common for patients to experience feelings of fear and anxiety. These feelings are natural. Many questions come to mind, the most important being: “What will happen to me?” Although a diagnosis of chronic kidney disease is significantly life-changing, modern medicine provides a reason to remain optimistic. It is important to understand that even though it will take you some time, you will get back to your life and be able to enjoy it again. On this page you will find answers to frequently asked questions from patients who have been diagnosed with kidney failure. Your doctor will support you and advise you on the most appropriate treatment and medications for your current situation. Feel free to ask if you have any questions. One of the most effective drugs for this disease is: https://pillintrip.com/medicine/fresubin.
What is “kidney failure” a
nd what are its causes?
The kidneys are vital organs. They have excretory (excretory) and secretory (active excretion) functions. Kidney disease is associated with the fact that the kidneys can no longer perform their functions fully. Permanent progressive deterioration of kidney function is called chronic kidney failure (C
KD). Renal failure can be the result of a gradual decline in kidney function over time, or it can be the result of sudden renal failure (i.e., acute renal failure – ARF). In the case of CPN, the kidneys are irreversibly damaged. Many causes can lead to chronic renal failure; the best kn
own include diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney inflammation (pyelonephritis), autoimmune kidney damage (glomerulonephritis), high blood pressure (hypertension) and other vascular damage.
When kidney function decreases, urine production is impaired and its constituents, such as water and waste products, accumulate in the body, leading to uremia. Uremia is the accumulation of mainly toxic products of nitrogenous metabolism (azotemia), acid-base and osmotic equilibrium disorders in the blood. The main symptoms of uremia are weakness, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, aversion to food, especially meat, itchy skin, apathy.
Is there a test you can take to find out if your baby has the disease?
If your doctor discovers kidne
y problems before your baby is born, or if you notice symptoms of kidney failure as a baby, you should have a test:
First, the doctor will order a blood test to measure kidney function. This is an indicator called “Rehberg-Tareyev test” – with its help you can find out how much blood the kidneys filter in a minute. In a healthy body, this figure should not be less than 90 ml/min;
Urinalysis to see if there is any blood or protein in the urine.
Other tests, such as ultrasound, MRI and CT scans, may also be needed to assess what the kidneys look like and whether there is any obvious damage. Sometimes a biopsy, a procedure in which a piece of kidney tissue is taken for examination in a laboratory, is needed.
Stomatidin is in a group of drugs called histamine receptor antagonists. Stomatidin works by decreasing the amount of acid your stomach produces.
Stomatidin is used to treat and prevent certain types of ulcer, and to treat conditions that cause the stomach to produce too much acid. Stomatidin is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), when stomach acid backs up into the esophagus and causes heartburn.
Stomatidin may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.
An indication is a term used for the list of condition or symptom or illness for which the medicine is prescribed or used by the patient. For example, acetaminophen or paracetamol is used for fever by the patient, or the doctor prescribes it for a headache or body pains. Now fever, headache and body pains are the indications of paracetamol.
Stomatidin Tablets USP are indicated in:1.Short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcer. Most patients heal within 4 weeks and there is rarely reason to use Stomatidin at full dosage for longer than 6 to 8 weeks. Concomitant antacids should be given as needed for relief of pain. However, simultaneous administration of oral Stomatidin and antacids is not recommended, since antacids have been reported to interfere with the absorption of oral Stomatidin.2.Maintenance therapy for duodenal ulcer patients at reduced dosage after healing of active ulcer. Patients have been maintained on continued treatment with Stomatidin 400 mg at bedtime for periods of up to five years.3.Short-term treatment of active benign gastric ulcer. There is no information concerning usefulness of treatment periods of longer than 8 weeks.4.Erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Erosive esophagitis diagnosed by endoscopy. Treatment is indicated for 12 weeks for healing of lesions and control of symptoms. The use of Stomatidin beyond 12 weeks has not been established.5.The treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions (i.e., Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome, systemic mastocytosis, multiple endocrine adenomas).
HOW SHOULD I USE STOMATIDIN?
Use Stomatidin suspension as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.
Take Stomatidin suspension by mouth with or without food.
Shake well before each use.
Take Stomatidin suspension with a full glass of water (8oz/240 mL).
Use a measuring device marked for medicine dosing. Ask your pharmacist for help if you are unsure of how to measure this dose.
If you also take cephalosporin (eg, cephalexin), itraconazole, or ketoconazole, take it at least 2 hours before taking Stomatidin suspension. Check with your doctor if you have questions.
If you miss a dose of Stomatidin suspension and you are taking it regularly, use it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not use 2 doses at once.
Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Stomatidin suspension.
USES OF STOMATIDIN IN DETAILS
There are specific as well as general uses of a drug or medicine. A medicine can be used to prevent a disease, treat a disease over a period or cure a disease. It can also be used to treat the particular symptom of the disease. The drug use depends on the form the patient takes it. It may be more useful in injection form or sometimes in tablet form.
Stomatidin is used to treat ulcers of the stomach and intestines and prevent them from coming back after they have healed. This medication is also used to treat certain stomach and throat (esophagus) problems caused by too much stomach acid (e.g., Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, erosive esophagitis) or a backward flow of stomach acid into the esophagus (acid reflux disease/GERD). Decreasing extra stomach acid can help relieve symptoms such as stomach pain, heartburn, difficulty swallowing, persistent cough, and trouble sleeping. It can also prevent serious acid damage to your digestive system (e.g., ulcers, cancer of the esophagus).
Stomatidin belongs to a class of drugs commonly called H2 blockers. It works by reducing the amount of acid in your stomach.
This medication is also available without a prescription. It is used to treat occasional heartburn caused by too much acid in the stomach (also called acid indigestion or sour stomach). It is also used to prevent heartburn and acid indigestion caused by certain foods and beverages. If you are taking this medication for self-treatment, it is important to read the manufacturer’s package instructions carefully so you know when to consult your doctor or pharmacist.
How to use Stomatidin
Take this medication by mouth with or without food as directed by your doctor.
The dosage and length of treatment are based on your medical condition and response to therapy. Follow your doctor’s instructions carefully. If you are also taking antacids to relieve stomach pain as recommended by your doctor, separate them from this medication by at least 1 hour.
Take this medication regularly as prescribed in order to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same time(s) each day. Do not increase your dose or take it more often than directed. Continue to take this medication for the prescribed length of treatment even if you are feeling better. Stopping treatment too early may delay the healing process.
If you are using nonprescription Stomatidin for self-treatment of acid indigestion or heartburn, take 1 tablet by mouth with a glass of water as needed. To prevent heartburn, take 1 tablet by mouth with a glass of water right before or up to 30 minutes before eating food or drinking beverages that cause heartburn. Do not take more than 2 tablets in 24 hours unless directed by your doctor. Do not take for more than 14 days in a row without talking with your doctor.
Inform your doctor if your symptoms do not improve or if they worsen.
Topiramate (Epitomax) was discovered in 1979 by Bruce E. Marianow and Joseph F. Gardocki during their research work at McNeil Pharmaceuticals. Commercial use of Topiramate began in 1996. Mylan Pharmaceuticals received final FDA approval to sell generic topiramate in the United States, and a generic version was released in September 2006.
The indications for use are
Partial or generalized tonic-clonic seizures in adults and children over 2 years of age, including patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy (as monotherapy or in combination with other anticonvulsants);
seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaud syndrome in adults and children over 2 years of age (as part of complex therapy);
Prevention of migraine attacks in adults.
The drug is approved for use in children over 2 years of age. Influence on driving and operating machinery The drug should be administered with caution in patients engaged in potentially hazardous activities that require increased attention and rapid psychomotor reactions, because the drug may cause drowsiness and dizziness.
Adequate and strictly controlled clinical safety studies of Epitomax in pregnancy have not been conducted. Nevertheless, the use of the drug in pregnancy is possible only when the expected benefits to the mother exceed the potential risk to the fetus.
Excretion of Epitomax with the breast milk has not been studied in controlled studies. The limited number of observations suggests that Epitomax is excreted with breast milk. If use of Epitomax during lactation is necessary, discontinuation of breastfeeding should be considered.
Children under 2 years of age;
Childhood under 6 years of age for monotherapy, under 3 years for combined therapy of epilepsy;
Children under 18 years of age when used for migraine prophylaxis;
prophylaxis of migraine in pregnant women or women of childbearing age who do not use effective contraception;
Hypersensitivity to the drug components.
Caution: renal failure, hepatic failure, hypercalciuria, nephrourolithiasis (including anamnesis or family history).
After oral administration, Epitomax is rapidly and effectively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The bioavailability calculated based on the radioactive label yield after administration of 100 mg of 14C-Epitomax was 81%. Food intake has no clinically significant effect on the bioavailability of the drug.
Distribution of the drug
Binding to plasma proteins is 13-17%. After a single oral dose up to 1200 mg, mean Vd is 0.55-0.8 l/kg. The Vd value depends on gender. In women, the values are about 50% of those observed in men, which is associated with a higher content of adipose tissue in women. After a single oral administration, Epitomax pharmacokinetics is linear, plasma clearance remains constant at 20-30 ml/min, and AUC in dose range from 100 mg to 400 mg increases in proportion to the dose. In patients with normal renal function, it may take 4 to 8 days to reach equilibrium.
Metabolism of the drug. About 20% of Epitomax is biotransformed to form 6 metabolites, 2 of which mostly retain the structure of Epitomax and either have no or minimal anticonvulsant activity.
Excretion of the drug. Epitomax and its metabolites are excreted primarily with the urine. After multiple doses of 50 and 100 mg twice daily, the average T1/2 was 21 hours.
In civilized countries, hundreds of thousands of strokes are reported annually. Unfortunately, if you “skip” the first minutes and hours of this formidable disease, the process becomes irreversible … That is why it is so important to know the rules of first aid for stroke
What causes a stroke
There is no single cause of stroke, so it is customary to talk about a set of risk factors that can lead to stroke. First of all, it is, of course, heredity. If a person has “weak” vessels (that is, there is a genetically determined weakness of the connective tissue), he may develop an aneurysm (expansion or stratification of the wall of the vessel that feeds the brain), which, having reached a certain size, may “break” and a hemorrhagic stroke will occur. If a person has a tendency to accumulate “bad” cholesterol, then atherosclerotic plaques will form in his vessels, narrowing the lumen and promoting the formation of blood clots. Risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, arrhythmia, overweight and diabetes mellitus also “work”. Therefore, no one can feel insured against a stroke.
Learning the rules of stroke
“Why do I need them,” you will say, “I’m a completely healthy person, and young people full of vitality are included in the circle of my relatives and friends”. Unfortunately, a stroke is rarely interested in the age of the person to whom it comes. Of course, men over 45 and women over 55 are at risk, but today there are frequent cases of stroke in both 30-year-olds and those who have just turned 25. Moreover, the younger the person, the less expected symptoms he may have. , characteristic of a stroke, and therefore – the longer it will remain without help, and the more sad the consequences of a brain catastrophe may be.
Smile – speak up – raise your hands
Stroke symptoms tend to develop very quickly. The scenario is approximately the same, only the sequence of their occurrence can change. Usually a person starts an attack of a sharp, unbearable headache, he complains that his head is literally “tearing”. The gait may change, it becomes unstable, the person falls, or paresis (numbness) of the muscles of the limbs or face begins. Stroke is characterized by unilateral paresis, when muscle weakness manifests itself only on the left or right side of the body. Because of this, the patient’s mouth seems to “twist” and even his facial features change. Speech becomes less clear – or slows down, or, conversely, the person starts to speak very quickly, but it is not clear. Fog before the eyes, defocusing of the gaze are also possible, it becomes difficult for the patient to formulate his thoughts and choose words.
Doctors recommend memorizing three basic techniques for recognizing stroke symptoms: SMILE – SPELLS – RAISE HANDS (SPL)
Ask the person to SMILE. With a stroke, the smile is “crooked” because the muscles on one side of the face are much less responsive.
TALK to him and ask him to answer a simple question, for example: “What is your name?” Usually, at the time of a brain catastrophe, a person cannot even pronounce his name coherently.
Invite him to RAISE BOTH HANDS at the same time. As a rule, the patient cannot cope with this task, the hands cannot rise one level, since one side of the body obeys worse.
The main task of doctors is to restore blood circulation in the brain of a person with a stroke. Since some of the brain cells have already died, time plays against – the sooner treatment is started, the more a person has a chance to survive and have less destructive consequences.
One of the main treatments for ischemic stroke is thrombolytic therapy. A person is injected with drugs that dissolve the blood clot. It makes sense to carry out such treatment only in the first hours after a stroke.
Treatment for hemorrhagic stroke is reduced to controlling bleeding and reducing pressure on the brain. Methods depend on the cause of the stroke – high blood pressure, head trauma, taking anticoagulants – blood thinners, a thin spot in the wall of a blood vessel – an aneurysm.
How to reduce your risk
Attention to your health and lifestyle, called prevention, can prevent up to 80% of strokes. The main catch is that it’s difficult to do prophylaxis when nothing hurts. So, at least, it was in the situation with my dad.
What can you do to reduce your risk of stroke? Change your lifestyle and influence modifiable risk factors: eat right, do not smoke, do not drink a lot of alcohol, play sports, monitor your weight, control diabetes, blood pressure, atrial fibrillation and other conditions that increase the risk.
The diet should be high in fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and poultry. The consumption of red meat and other foods rich in saturated fat should be reduced. An excess amount of salt in the diet raises blood pressure, so a relatively safe dose of salt per day is about 6 g, which is about the same as a teaspoon.
Moderate physical activity 150 minutes per week (brisk walking, dancing, active games with children or walking with pets) will be a great contribution to the prevention of heart disease.
According to statistics from the American Stroke Association, 10% of stroke survivors recover completely, 25% with minor disabilities, 40% with moderate or severe disabilities that require special care, 10% need to be transferred to a specialized long-term care facility. 15% die soon after a stroke.
Unfortunately, the catastrophe has already occurred, some of the brain cells have died. It is impossible to “cure” and bring them back to life. Therefore, rehabilitation after a stroke should be aimed at fully or partially restoring the lost skills – neighboring areas of the brain will take over the functions of dead cells – and, if possible, return to independent life. Ideally, rehabilitation should begin after stabilization of the condition – right in the intensive care unit or hospital ward.
Rehabilitation can include classes with different specialists, for example, a physical therapy instructor, a speech therapist. Abroad, the “rehabilitation” team that helps a person recover from a stroke is very large: it consists of a neurologist, a rehabilitation nurse, a nutritionist, a social worker and other specialists.
Cardiovascular diseases have long been the leading cause of death. The World Health Organization estimates that 17.9 million people died from heart disease in 2016. 85% of all these deaths are caused by heart attacks and strokes. According to the Stroke Foundation every minute and a half someone suffers a stroke.
In the spring of 2019, these statistics ceased to be abstract figures for the journalist Sasha Vasilyeva – her dad had a stroke. She talks about what my dad went through, understands the types, signs and risk factors of stroke and explains what can be done for prevention.
What is a stroke
The human brain, like all other tissues and organs, needs oxygen and nutrients. They are carried by the bloodstream through the arteries.
It is vitally important that this constant process of blood circulation is not interrupted – brain cells (and not only them), left without oxygen, quickly die. A condition in which cerebral circulation is impaired is called a stroke.
The main types of developments are as follows.
Blood may not flow to the brain because the artery supplying it is partially or completely blocked. This is an ischemic stroke. It occurs in more than 80% of cases. The artery is blocked by a blood clot – a thrombus. It can be the “master” of this artery – to arise there due to wall damage. Or a blood clot – an embolus – may be a “guest” rushing in from another place in the body. Such a “guest” travels through the blood vessels of the brain until it reaches the narrowest one in order to get stuck in it.
Another type of stroke, hemorrhagic, occurs, for example, when a weakened blood vessel that feeds the brain ruptures. In other words, a cerebral hemorrhage occurs: blood floods the nearest areas of the brain, damaging them. Those brain cells that are located behind the rupture site are deprived of blood supply and oxygen and also suffer. In another type of hemorrhagic stroke, blood enters the space between the brain and the bones of the skull.
Transient ischemic attack
A variant of short-term circulatory disorders in the brain, which is also caused by a blood clot, is also possible. For example, when washing his face in the morning, a person finds that half of his mouth does not obey well. He gets scared, but while he brushes his teeth, everything goes away. Or suddenly one hand goes numb – not for long, and the person decides that this is an accident, not a symptom.
Such a condition close to a stroke is called a transient ischemic attack. It usually goes away in a few minutes, does not destroy brain cells, but it can be a harbinger of an impending stroke, therefore, such symptoms cannot be attributed to accident.
Diabetes mellitus ranks third in the world by mortality in developed countries.
Today, there are about 150 million people worldwide suffering from the disease, and the World Health Organization predicts that by 2025 this figure could rise to 300 million.
As long as diabetes mellitus is incurable, but modern medical science is able to improve the quality of life of patients, make them able to live and work normally.
Dr. Denis Slinkin tells us about the problems in this field of medicine and health care.Diabetes mellitus occurs when the body lacks the most important hormone – insulin, without which cells do not absorb glucose from carbohydrate food. There is another variant of diabetes mellitus: the amount of insulin is enough, but due to a number of reasons the body’s cells lose sensitivity to it, and it also affects the utilization of glucose, primarily in muscle and adipose tissue.
As a result, the concentration of glucose in the blood increases, but the glucose does not enter the tissue at all. Glucose is the body’s main “fuel”, without it cells do not produce the main molecule that accumulates living energy – adenosine triphosphate phate (ATP). Brain cells are particularly sensitive to glucose deficiency and die within 5 minutes without it, says Dr. Denis Slinkin.
The hormone of insulin, or rather its predecessor – proinsulin, produces cells of the pancreas, which are called Langerhans islands. But it’s not all cells that synthesize it, but only part of them, the so-called beta cells.
Proinsulin, a short-chain protein molecule, turns into insulin as it passes through the cell membrane. The more insulin is needed, the more beta cells are involved.
It should be emphasized that in the human body there is a background, so-called “basal”, insulin production and peak, associated with eating. Dr. Denis Slinkin states that there are currently two main types of diabetes: insulin dependent diabetes and insulin-independent diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by absolute insulin insufficiency – the pancreas does not produce the hormone at all. In this case, insulin injections are required in order to save the patient’s life.