The heart, like other organs and tissues in the body, needs blood. The blood supply to this organ is provided by blood vessels called coronary arteries. Myocardial infarction is damage or death to a portion of the heart muscle. The damage is caused by a lack of blood flow through the coronary arteries. For this reason, myocardial infarction is sometimes called “coronary” in the literature. Almost all of its cases are recorded in those who have already been diagnosed with ischemic heart disease (ischemia is a violation of the blood supply). Let’s figure out what can be done in order to reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease and how use optimizette.
In people with coronary artery disease, the coronary arteries can be narrowed by fatty deposits called plaques. Atherosclerotic plaques are composed of cholesterol and other compounds of fats, calcium, and connective tissue. With narrowing of the coronary vessels, blood flow to the heart is reduced. Restricting blood flow to the heart muscle causes chest pain or tightness. These symptoms are commonly referred to as angina pectoris.
17.5 million people die each month from cardiovascular disease.
50% in Russia die from cardiovascular diseases.
80% of cardiovascular diseases in the Russian Federation are of atherosclerotic genesis.
80% of premature heart attacks and strokes can be prevented.
75% of people with cardiovascular disease live in middle- and low-income countries.
Usually, atherosclerotic plaques are attached in one place to the artery and remain there. But sometimes they can break away from the vessel wall, causing blockage in narrower places, which leads to the development of heart attacks and strokes. In addition, “cracks” can form on the plaques, to which the body reacts in the same way as a ruptured blood vessel. As a result, the body sends blood cells to help – platelets, which move to the location of the plaque and begin to stick to each other, forming a clot. They normally help us stop bleeding. However, when such clots form in the coronary arteries, blood flow is blocked – a heart attack occurs. As a result of ischemia (lack of blood supply), the heart muscle is damaged and may die.
Typical symptoms of a heart attack include:
discomfort (pressure, tightness, squeezing) in the chest;
chest pain that can spread to the abdomen, shoulders, arms, neck, and throat;
shortness of breath;
cardiac arrhythmias (“skipping” heart beats);
A heart attack usually causes chest pain for 15 minutes or more, but sometimes there may be no symptoms at all, and in some people, on the contrary, the first symptoms may appear in a few more hours or days.
If you or someone nearby has severe, prolonged chest pain or if chest pain is bothersome, call an ambulance right away. For a patient with a heart attack, every minute counts: the sooner he gets to the hospital, the sooner he can get treatment.
Before the arrival of an ambulance, you can take aspirin (if there are no contraindications). If the person nearby is unconscious, start cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but if you have not received appropriate training, doctors recommend starting to do only compressions (from 100 to 120 per minute). If an automatic defibrillator is near you and the person is already unconscious, you can use it following the instructions.
What can be done to prevent myocardial infarction? Of course, there are non-modifiable risk factors, first of all – age, because the older a person becomes, the greater the risks become. However, a person is able to influence some aspects of his life.
There are scales for calculating the risk of death from cardiovascular disease in the coming years. Russia uses the SCORE scale for high-risk countries.
Based on this scale, there are at least two parameters that need to be monitored: blood pressure and total cholesterol level. If you translate this into human language, then you need to follow the way of life. First of all, we are talking about regular physical activity and increasing the amount of fruits and vegetables in the diet. In addition, it is necessary to reduce the amount of salt consumed and not consume alcohol.
You also need to monitor your blood glucose levels, as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease always go hand in hand. Another important point is cessation of tobacco use. Smoking negatively affects both the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In some cases, medical therapy may be required as directed by a physician. Sometimes, expensive surgery may be required for treatment, ranging from coronary artery bypass grafting to heart transplant.
WHO is committed to the systematic fight against cardiovascular disease, introducing new programs that promote healthy lifestyles. For the prevention of heart attacks and strokes, measures should be targeted at people with an average or high risk level or people with diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia (high levels of “bad” cholesterol in the body).
Thus, for the prevention of heart attack and stroke, it is necessary:
Monitor the blood pressure value. Today there are different types of blood pressure monitors, many of which require the user only to press a button. Remember that the pressure should be measured in a comfortable sitting position, at rest, and the pressure should be measured three times.
Monitor blood lipids. Take medication as needed.
Monitor blood glucose levels.
Refrain from smoking and other forms of tobacco use.
Switch to a healthy diet: Limit the amount of salt, sugar, fatty foods and alcohol.