How is hydronephrosis treated?

Not everyone needs treatment for hydronephrosis and use If it is still necessary, then depending on the cause of the disease and the severity of the symptoms, different methods are selected.

As a rule, the first step in the treatment of hydronephrosis is the removal of excess urine from the kidneys using a catheter. Then it all depends on why urine accumulates in the kidneys. For example, surgery may be required to remove stones. Your doctor will prescribe antibiotics to clear the urinary tract infection. When the ureter (the canal that connects the kidneys to the bladder) is narrowed, it is widened to allow urine to pass unobstructed. To do this, a special tube is inserted into it – a stent.

How is congenital hydronephrosis treated?

If hydronephrosis has developed in an unborn baby, the doctor will prescribe regular ultrasounds to the mother to monitor the development of the disease. Most often, hydronephrosis resolves on its own before birth and does not require treatment.

Sometimes hydronephrosis does not go away during pregnancy and the baby is born with the disease. Then he will need to undergo several examinations in the first days or weeks of life. The doctor may prescribe antibiotics to prevent the child from developing an infection due to the accumulation of urine in the kidneys. Surgery may be required to treat severe forms of hydronephrosis.

Heart attack only for those over 60? The Truth About Cardiovascular Disease

The heart, like other organs and tissues in the body, needs blood. The blood supply to this organ is provided by blood vessels called coronary arteries. Myocardial infarction is damage or death to a portion of the heart muscle. The damage is caused by a lack of blood flow through the coronary arteries. For this reason, myocardial infarction is sometimes called “coronary” in the literature. Almost all of its cases are recorded in those who have already been diagnosed with ischemic heart disease (ischemia is a violation of the blood supply). Let’s figure out what can be done in order to reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease and how use optimizette.

In people with coronary artery disease, the coronary arteries can be narrowed by fatty deposits called plaques. Atherosclerotic plaques are composed of cholesterol and other compounds of fats, calcium, and connective tissue. With narrowing of the coronary vessels, blood flow to the heart is reduced. Restricting blood flow to the heart muscle causes chest pain or tightness. These symptoms are commonly referred to as angina pectoris.
17.5 million people die each month from cardiovascular disease.
50% in Russia die from cardiovascular diseases.
80% of cardiovascular diseases in the Russian Federation are of atherosclerotic genesis.
80% of premature heart attacks and strokes can be prevented.
75% of people with cardiovascular disease live in middle- and low-income countries.

Usually, atherosclerotic plaques are attached in one place to the artery and remain there. But sometimes they can break away from the vessel wall, causing blockage in narrower places, which leads to the development of heart attacks and strokes. In addition, “cracks” can form on the plaques, to which the body reacts in the same way as a ruptured blood vessel. As a result, the body sends blood cells to help – platelets, which move to the location of the plaque and begin to stick to each other, forming a clot. They normally help us stop bleeding. However, when such clots form in the coronary arteries, blood flow is blocked – a heart attack occurs. As a result of ischemia (lack of blood supply), the heart muscle is damaged and may die.
Typical symptoms of a heart attack include:
discomfort (pressure, tightness, squeezing) in the chest;
chest pain that can spread to the abdomen, shoulders, arms, neck, and throat;
shortness of breath;
increased sweating;
cardiac arrhythmias (“skipping” heart beats);

A heart attack usually causes chest pain for 15 minutes or more, but sometimes there may be no symptoms at all, and in some people, on the contrary, the first symptoms may appear in a few more hours or days.
If you or someone nearby has severe, prolonged chest pain or if chest pain is bothersome, call an ambulance right away. For a patient with a heart attack, every minute counts: the sooner he gets to the hospital, the sooner he can get treatment.
Before the arrival of an ambulance, you can take aspirin (if there are no contraindications). If the person nearby is unconscious, start cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but if you have not received appropriate training, doctors recommend starting to do only compressions (from 100 to 120 per minute). If an automatic defibrillator is near you and the person is already unconscious, you can use it following the instructions.
What can be done to prevent myocardial infarction? Of course, there are non-modifiable risk factors, first of all – age, because the older a person becomes, the greater the risks become. However, a person is able to influence some aspects of his life.
There are scales for calculating the risk of death from cardiovascular disease in the coming years. Russia uses the SCORE scale for high-risk countries.

Adult male with heart attack or heart burn condition, health and medicine concept

Based on this scale, there are at least two parameters that need to be monitored: blood pressure and total cholesterol level. If you translate this into human language, then you need to follow the way of life. First of all, we are talking about regular physical activity and increasing the amount of fruits and vegetables in the diet. In addition, it is necessary to reduce the amount of salt consumed and not consume alcohol.
You also need to monitor your blood glucose levels, as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease always go hand in hand. Another important point is cessation of tobacco use. Smoking negatively affects both the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In some cases, medical therapy may be required as directed by a physician. Sometimes, expensive surgery may be required for treatment, ranging from coronary artery bypass grafting to heart transplant.
WHO is committed to the systematic fight against cardiovascular disease, introducing new programs that promote healthy lifestyles. For the prevention of heart attacks and strokes, measures should be targeted at people with an average or high risk level or people with diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia (high levels of “bad” cholesterol in the body).
Thus, for the prevention of heart attack and stroke, it is necessary:
Monitor the blood pressure value. Today there are different types of blood pressure monitors, many of which require the user only to press a button. Remember that the pressure should be measured in a comfortable sitting position, at rest, and the pressure should be measured three times.
Monitor blood lipids. Take medication as needed.
Monitor blood glucose levels.
Refrain from smoking and other forms of tobacco use.
Exercise regularly.
Switch to a healthy diet: Limit the amount of salt, sugar, fatty foods and alcohol.


Dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin that can occur as a result of exposure to various factors (mechanical, physical, chemical), and as a result of allergic reactions. In medicine, this term is considered generalized, therefore, when making a diagnosis, a clarification is used that indicates the origin of the disease (for example, “allergic dermatitis”). In this article, we will detail the causes, clinical manifestations and treatments for dermatitis. This drug is effective against some forms of dermatitis:

What is dermatitis

As the name implies (Greek derma – skin, itis – inflammation), dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin. The factors provoking the development of this process are divided into external and internal. The first group includes any external irritant (for example, a chemical), and the second – substances that cause dermatitis when ingested.

How does it look in practice? Suppose that a person gets his hands dirty in fuel oil, tried to wash them with ordinary soap, and, of course, did not achieve the desired result. Then the person wiped off his hands with a cloth soaked in solvent, and after a while he developed inflammation of the skin of the palms and fingers. In this case, both fuel oil and solvent (and, possibly, even soap) could become external irritants. This is a typical picture for contact dermatitis.

Another example is if a person is allergic to egg white and accidentally eats a cream cake. Soon, he develops manifestations of atopic dermatitis, which in medicine is called toxidermia (since the phenomenon arose as a result of ingestion of an allergen).

Dermatitis can also be acute or chronic. The acute form is characterized by a rapid onset and rapid development of the clinical picture, while this form is quite easy to treat. With chronic dermatitis, the opposite is true: the course of the disease is long, accompanied by regular relapses (for example, seasonal exacerbation of allergic dermatitis). Most of the time, symptoms may be mild, but exacerbate when a provoking factor appears.

Dermatitis manifestations
The nuances of the clinical picture (for example, the clarity of the boundaries of the lesion or the severity of redness) can vary depending on the form of dermatitis. However, most types of skin inflammation are characterized by the following symptoms:

the appearance of blisters, blistering rash, cracks and crusts on the skin;
a feeling of heat in the place of the greatest damage to the skin;
pain and itching;
burning sensation of varying severity;
erythema (redness).
Even if 1-2 symptoms from this list appear, you should consult a doctor, because the sooner the cause of dermatitis is identified, the more effective the treatment will be.

Separately, mention should be made of the need for consultation with a specialist for pregnant women. During the period of carrying a child, a woman’s hormonal background changes significantly, due to which many unpleasant complications arise, including dermatitis. At the same time, the doctor should select the drugs, since pregnancy is a contraindication for taking most pharmacological drugs.

Diagnosis: Renal failure

Hearing the phrase “You have kidney failure” is common for patients to experience feelings of fear and anxiety. These feelings are natural. Many questions come to mind, the most important being: “What will happen to me?” Although a diagnosis of chronic kidney disease is significantly life-changing, modern medicine provides a reason to remain optimistic. It is important to understand that even though it will take you some time, you will get back to your life and be able to enjoy it again. On this page you will find answers to frequently asked questions from patients who have been diagnosed with kidney failure. Your doctor will support you and advise you on the most appropriate treatment and medications for your current situation. Feel free to ask if you have any questions. One of the most effective drugs for this disease is:

What is “kidney failure” a

nd what are its causes?
The kidneys are vital organs. They have excretory (excretory) and secretory (active excretion) functions. Kidney disease is associated with the fact that the kidneys can no longer perform their functions fully. Permanent progressive deterioration of kidney function is called chronic kidney failure (C

KD). Renal failure can be the result of a gradual decline in kidney function over time, or it can be the result of sudden renal failure (i.e., acute renal failure – ARF). In the case of CPN, the kidneys are irreversibly damaged. Many causes can lead to chronic renal failure; the best kn

own include diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney inflammation (pyelonephritis), autoimmune kidney damage (glomerulonephritis), high blood pressure (hypertension) and other vascular damage.

When kidney function decreases, urine production is impaired and its constituents, such as water and waste products, accumulate in the body, leading to uremia. Uremia is the accumulation of mainly toxic products of nitrogenous metabolism (azotemia), acid-base and osmotic equilibrium disorders in the blood. The main symptoms of uremia are weakness, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, aversion to food, especially meat, itchy skin, apathy.

Is there a test you can take to find out if your baby has the disease?

If your doctor discovers kidne

y problems before your baby is born, or if you notice symptoms of kidney failure as a baby, you should have a test:

First, the doctor will order a blood test to measure kidney function. This is an indicator called “Rehberg-Tareyev test” – with its help you can find out how much blood the kidneys filter in a minute. In a healthy body, this figure should not be less than 90 ml/min;

Urinalysis to see if there is any blood or protein in the urine.

Other tests, such as ultrasound, MRI and CT scans, may also be needed to assess what the kidneys look like and whether there is any obvious damage. Sometimes a biopsy, a procedure in which a piece of kidney tissue is taken for examination in a laboratory, is needed.


What is Stomatidin?

Stomatidin is in a group of drugs called histamine receptor antagonists. Stomatidin works by decreasing the amount of acid your stomach produces.

Stomatidin is used to treat and prevent certain types of ulcer, and to treat conditions that cause the stomach to produce too much acid. Stomatidin is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), when stomach acid backs up into the esophagus and causes heartburn.

Stomatidin may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.


An indication is a term used for the list of condition or symptom or illness for which the medicine is prescribed or used by the patient. For example, acetaminophen or paracetamol is used for fever by the patient, or the doctor prescribes it for a headache or body pains. Now fever, headache and body pains are the indications of paracetamol.

Stomatidin Tablets USP are indicated in:1.Short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcer. Most patients heal within 4 weeks and there is rarely reason to use Stomatidin at full dosage for longer than 6 to 8 weeks. Concomitant antacids should be given as needed for relief of pain. However, simultaneous administration of oral Stomatidin and antacids is not recommended, since antacids have been reported to interfere with the absorption of oral Stomatidin.2.Maintenance therapy for duodenal ulcer patients at reduced dosage after healing of active ulcer. Patients have been maintained on continued treatment with Stomatidin 400 mg at bedtime for periods of up to five years.3.Short-term treatment of active benign gastric ulcer. There is no information concerning usefulness of treatment periods of longer than 8 weeks.4.Erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Erosive esophagitis diagnosed by endoscopy. Treatment is indicated for 12 weeks for healing of lesions and control of symptoms. The use of Stomatidin beyond 12 weeks has not been established.5.The treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions (i.e., Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome, systemic mastocytosis, multiple endocrine adenomas).


Use Stomatidin suspension as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.

  • Take Stomatidin suspension by mouth with or without food.
  • Shake well before each use.
  • Take Stomatidin suspension with a full glass of water (8oz/240 mL).
  • Use a measuring device marked for medicine dosing. Ask your pharmacist for help if you are unsure of how to measure this dose.
  • If you also take cephalosporin (eg, cephalexin), itraconazole, or ketoconazole, take it at least 2 hours before taking Stomatidin suspension. Check with your doctor if you have questions.
  • If you miss a dose of Stomatidin suspension and you are taking it regularly, use it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not use 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Stomatidin suspension.


Stomatidin is in a group of drugs called histamine receptor antagonists.
Stomatidin is in a group of drugs called histamine receptor antagonists.

There are specific as well as general uses of a drug or medicine. A medicine can be used to prevent a disease, treat a disease over a period or cure a disease. It can also be used to treat the particular symptom of the disease. The drug use depends on the form the patient takes it. It may be more useful in injection form or sometimes in tablet form.

Stomatidin is used to treat ulcers of the stomach and intestines and prevent them from coming back after they have healed. This medication is also used to treat certain stomach and throat (esophagus) problems caused by too much stomach acid (e.g., Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, erosive esophagitis) or a backward flow of stomach acid into the esophagus (acid reflux disease/GERD). Decreasing extra stomach acid can help relieve symptoms such as stomach pain, heartburn, difficulty swallowing, persistent cough, and trouble sleeping. It can also prevent serious acid damage to your digestive system (e.g., ulcers, cancer of the esophagus).

Stomatidin belongs to a class of drugs commonly called H2 blockers. It works by reducing the amount of acid in your stomach.

This medication is also available without a prescription. It is used to treat occasional heartburn caused by too much acid in the stomach (also called acid indigestion or sour stomach). It is also used to prevent heartburn and acid indigestion caused by certain foods and beverages. If you are taking this medication for self-treatment, it is important to read the manufacturer’s package instructions carefully so you know when to consult your doctor or pharmacist.

How to use Stomatidin

Take this medication by mouth with or without food as directed by your doctor.

The dosage and length of treatment are based on your medical condition and response to therapy. Follow your doctor’s instructions carefully. If you are also taking antacids to relieve stomach pain as recommended by your doctor, separate them from this medication by at least 1 hour.

Take this medication regularly as prescribed in order to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same time(s) each day. Do not increase your dose or take it more often than directed. Continue to take this medication for the prescribed length of treatment even if you are feeling better. Stopping treatment too early may delay the healing process.

If you are using nonprescription Stomatidin for self-treatment of acid indigestion or heartburn, take 1 tablet by mouth with a glass of water as needed. To prevent heartburn, take 1 tablet by mouth with a glass of water right before or up to 30 minutes before eating food or drinking beverages that cause heartburn. Do not take more than 2 tablets in 24 hours unless directed by your doctor. Do not take for more than 14 days in a row without talking with your doctor.

Inform your doctor if your symptoms do not improve or if they worsen.

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Specific Clarifications for Taking Epitomax

Topiramate (Epitomax) was discovered in 1979 by Bruce E. Marianow and Joseph F. Gardocki during their research work at McNeil Pharmaceuticals. Commercial use of Topiramate began in 1996. Mylan Pharmaceuticals received final FDA approval to sell generic topiramate in the United States, and a generic version was released in September 2006.

The indications for use are

  • Partial or generalized tonic-clonic seizures in adults and children over 2 years of age, including patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy (as monotherapy or in combination with other anticonvulsants);
  • seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaud syndrome in adults and children over 2 years of age (as part of complex therapy);
  • Prevention of migraine attacks in adults.
Specific Clarifications for Taking Epitomax

The drug is approved for use in children over 2 years of age. Influence on driving and operating machinery The drug should be administered with caution in patients engaged in potentially hazardous activities that require increased attention and rapid psychomotor reactions, because the drug may cause drowsiness and dizziness.

Adequate and strictly controlled clinical safety studies of Epitomax in pregnancy have not been conducted. Nevertheless, the use of the drug in pregnancy is possible only when the expected benefits to the mother exceed the potential risk to the fetus.

Excretion of Epitomax with the breast milk has not been studied in controlled studies. The limited number of observations suggests that Epitomax is excreted with breast milk. If use of Epitomax during lactation is necessary, discontinuation of breastfeeding should be considered.


  • Children under 2 years of age;
  • Childhood under 6 years of age for monotherapy, under 3 years for combined therapy of epilepsy;
  • Children under 18 years of age when used for migraine prophylaxis;
  • prophylaxis of migraine in pregnant women or women of childbearing age who do not use effective contraception;
  • Hypersensitivity to the drug components.

Caution: renal failure, hepatic failure, hypercalciuria, nephrourolithiasis (including anamnesis or family history).

Drug absorption

After oral administration, Epitomax is rapidly and effectively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The bioavailability calculated based on the radioactive label yield after administration of 100 mg of 14C-Epitomax was 81%. Food intake has no clinically significant effect on the bioavailability of the drug.

Distribution of the drug

Specific Clarifications for Taking Epitomax

Binding to plasma proteins is 13-17%. After a single oral dose up to 1200 mg, mean Vd is 0.55-0.8 l/kg. The Vd value depends on gender. In women, the values are about 50% of those observed in men, which is associated with a higher content of adipose tissue in women. After a single oral administration, Epitomax pharmacokinetics is linear, plasma clearance remains constant at 20-30 ml/min, and AUC in dose range from 100 mg to 400 mg increases in proportion to the dose. In patients with normal renal function, it may take 4 to 8 days to reach equilibrium.

Metabolism of the drug. About 20% of Epitomax is biotransformed to form 6 metabolites, 2 of which mostly retain the structure of Epitomax and either have no or minimal anticonvulsant activity.

Excretion of the drug. Epitomax and its metabolites are excreted primarily with the urine. After multiple doses of 50 and 100 mg twice daily, the average T1/2 was 21 hours.

Watch out for the first signs of a stroke

In civilized countries, hundreds of thousands of strokes are reported annually. Unfortunately, if you “skip” the first minutes and hours of this formidable disease, the process becomes irreversible … That is why it is so important to know the rules of first aid for stroke

What causes a stroke

Watch out for the first signs of a stroke

There is no single cause of stroke, so it is customary to talk about a set of risk factors that can lead to stroke. First of all, it is, of course, heredity. If a person has “weak” vessels (that is, there is a genetically determined weakness of the connective tissue), he may develop an aneurysm (expansion or stratification of the wall of the vessel that feeds the brain), which, having reached a certain size, may “break” and a hemorrhagic stroke will occur. If a person has a tendency to accumulate “bad” cholesterol, then atherosclerotic plaques will form in his vessels, narrowing the lumen and promoting the formation of blood clots. Risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, arrhythmia, overweight and diabetes mellitus also “work”. Therefore, no one can feel insured against a stroke.

Learning the rules of stroke

“Why do I need them,” you will say, “I’m a completely healthy person, and young people full of vitality are included in the circle of my relatives and friends”. Unfortunately, a stroke is rarely interested in the age of the person to whom it comes. Of course, men over 45 and women over 55 are at risk, but today there are frequent cases of stroke in both 30-year-olds and those who have just turned 25. Moreover, the younger the person, the less expected symptoms he may have. , characteristic of a stroke, and therefore – the longer it will remain without help, and the more sad the consequences of a brain catastrophe may be.

Smile – speak up – raise your hands

Watch out for the first signs of a stroke

Stroke symptoms tend to develop very quickly. The scenario is approximately the same, only the sequence of their occurrence can change. Usually a person starts an attack of a sharp, unbearable headache, he complains that his head is literally “tearing”. The gait may change, it becomes unstable, the person falls, or paresis (numbness) of the muscles of the limbs or face begins. Stroke is characterized by unilateral paresis, when muscle weakness manifests itself only on the left or right side of the body. Because of this, the patient’s mouth seems to “twist” and even his facial features change. Speech becomes less clear – or slows down, or, conversely, the person starts to speak very quickly, but it is not clear. Fog before the eyes, defocusing of the gaze are also possible, it becomes difficult for the patient to formulate his thoughts and choose words.

Doctors recommend memorizing three basic techniques for recognizing stroke symptoms: SMILE – SPELLS – RAISE HANDS (SPL)

  • Ask the person to SMILE. With a stroke, the smile is “crooked” because the muscles on one side of the face are much less responsive.
  • TALK to him and ask him to answer a simple question, for example: “What is your name?” Usually, at the time of a brain catastrophe, a person cannot even pronounce his name coherently.
  • Invite him to RAISE BOTH HANDS at the same time. As a rule, the patient cannot cope with this task, the hands cannot rise one level, since one side of the body obeys worse.

Stroke treatment

The main task of doctors is to restore blood circulation in the brain of a person with a stroke. Since some of the brain cells have already died, time plays against – the sooner treatment is started, the more a person has a chance to survive and have less destructive consequences.

One of the main treatments for ischemic stroke is thrombolytic therapy. A person is injected with drugs that dissolve the blood clot. It makes sense to carry out such treatment only in the first hours after a stroke.

Treatment for hemorrhagic stroke is reduced to controlling bleeding and reducing pressure on the brain. Methods depend on the cause of the stroke – high blood pressure, head trauma, taking anticoagulants – blood thinners, a thin spot in the wall of a blood vessel – an aneurysm.

How to reduce your risk

Stroke treatment

Attention to your health and lifestyle, called prevention, can prevent up to 80% of strokes. The main catch is that it’s difficult to do prophylaxis when nothing hurts. So, at least, it was in the situation with my dad.

What can you do to reduce your risk of stroke? Change your lifestyle and influence modifiable risk factors: eat right, do not smoke, do not drink a lot of alcohol, play sports, monitor your weight, control diabetes, blood pressure, atrial fibrillation and other conditions that increase the risk.

The diet should be high in fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and poultry. The consumption of red meat and other foods rich in saturated fat should be reduced. An excess amount of salt in the diet raises blood pressure, so a relatively safe dose of salt per day is about 6 g, which is about the same as a teaspoon.

Moderate physical activity 150 minutes per week (brisk walking, dancing, active games with children or walking with pets) will be a great contribution to the prevention of heart disease.


Stroke treatment

According to statistics from the American Stroke Association, 10% of stroke survivors recover completely, 25% with minor disabilities, 40% with moderate or severe disabilities that require special care, 10% need to be transferred to a specialized long-term care facility. 15% die soon after a stroke.

Unfortunately, the catastrophe has already occurred, some of the brain cells have died. It is impossible to “cure” and bring them back to life. Therefore, rehabilitation after a stroke should be aimed at fully or partially restoring the lost skills – neighboring areas of the brain will take over the functions of dead cells – and, if possible, return to independent life. Ideally, rehabilitation should begin after stabilization of the condition – right in the intensive care unit or hospital ward.

Rehabilitation can include classes with different specialists, for example, a physical therapy instructor, a speech therapist. Abroad, the “rehabilitation” team that helps a person recover from a stroke is very large: it consists of a neurologist, a rehabilitation nurse, a nutritionist, a social worker and other specialists.

Stroke. How to avoid and what to do?

Cardiovascular diseases have long been the leading cause of death. The World Health Organization estimates that 17.9 million people died from heart disease in 2016. 85% of all these deaths are caused by heart attacks and strokes. According to the Stroke Foundation every minute and a half someone suffers a stroke.

In the spring of 2019, these statistics ceased to be abstract figures for the journalist Sasha Vasilyeva – her dad had a stroke. She talks about what my dad went through, understands the types, signs and risk factors of stroke and explains what can be done for prevention.

What is a stroke

Stroke. How to avoid and what to do?

The human brain, like all other tissues and organs, needs oxygen and nutrients. They are carried by the bloodstream through the arteries.

It is vitally important that this constant process of blood circulation is not interrupted – brain cells (and not only them), left without oxygen, quickly die. A condition in which cerebral circulation is impaired is called a stroke.

The main types of developments are as follows.

Ischemic stroke

Blood may not flow to the brain because the artery supplying it is partially or completely blocked. This is an ischemic stroke. It occurs in more than 80% of cases. The artery is blocked by a blood clot – a thrombus. It can be the “master” of this artery – to arise there due to wall damage. Or a blood clot – an embolus – may be a “guest” rushing in from another place in the body. Such a “guest” travels through the blood vessels of the brain until it reaches the narrowest one in order to get stuck in it.

Hemorrhagic stroke

Stroke. How to avoid and what to do?

Another type of stroke, hemorrhagic, occurs, for example, when a weakened blood vessel that feeds the brain ruptures. In other words, a cerebral hemorrhage occurs: blood floods the nearest areas of the brain, damaging them. Those brain cells that are located behind the rupture site are deprived of blood supply and oxygen and also suffer. In another type of hemorrhagic stroke, blood enters the space between the brain and the bones of the skull.

Transient ischemic attack

A variant of short-term circulatory disorders in the brain, which is also caused by a blood clot, is also possible. For example, when washing his face in the morning, a person finds that half of his mouth does not obey well. He gets scared, but while he brushes his teeth, everything goes away. Or suddenly one hand goes numb – not for long, and the person decides that this is an accident, not a symptom.

Such a condition close to a stroke is called a transient ischemic attack. It usually goes away in a few minutes, does not destroy brain cells, but it can be a harbinger of an impending stroke, therefore, such symptoms cannot be attributed to accident.

Dr. Denis Slinkin

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus ranks third in the world by mortality in developed countries. 

Today, there are about 150 million people worldwide suffering from the disease, and the World Health Organization predicts that by 2025 this figure could rise to 300 million. 

As long as diabetes mellitus is incurable, but modern medical science is able to improve the quality of life of patients, make them able to live and work normally. 

Dr. Denis Slinkin tells us about the problems in this field of medicine and health care.Diabetes mellitus occurs when the body lacks the most important hormone – insulin, without which cells do not absorb glucose from carbohydrate food. There is another variant of diabetes mellitus: the amount of insulin is enough, but due to a number of reasons the body’s cells lose sensitivity to it, and it also affects the utilization of glucose, primarily in muscle and adipose tissue. 

Dr. Denis Slinkin

As a result, the concentration of glucose in the blood increases, but the glucose does not enter the tissue at all. Glucose is the body’s main “fuel”, without it cells do not produce the main molecule that accumulates living energy – adenosine triphosphate phate (ATP). Brain cells are particularly sensitive to glucose deficiency and die within 5 minutes without it, says Dr. Denis Slinkin.

The hormone of insulin, or rather its predecessor – proinsulin, produces cells of the pancreas, which are called Langerhans islands. But it’s not all cells that synthesize it, but only part of them, the so-called beta cells. 

Proinsulin, a short-chain protein molecule, turns into insulin as it passes through the cell membrane. The more insulin is needed, the more beta cells are involved. 

It should be emphasized that in the human body there is a background, so-called “basal”, insulin production and peak, associated with eating. Dr. Denis Slinkin states that there are currently two main types of diabetes: insulin dependent diabetes and insulin-independent diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by absolute insulin insufficiency – the pancreas does not produce the hormone at all. In this case, insulin injections are required in order to save the patient’s life.